This qualitative multiple case study explored the instructional leadership behaviors of principals of three ‘Level 5’ schools of excellence for improvement in Arkansas. The schools selected consisted of a high percentage of low-socioeconomic students, different geographical locations, and a large population of students. The findings concluded that the principals’ behaviors were aligned with Hoy and Hoy’s (2006) theoretical framework. Although the principals’ behaviors were prevalent in all three schools, the behaviors were diverse. The cross analysis of the schools confirmed by the principals and teachers that the culture of the school was one of teamwork. Thus, the study offers a description of the principals’ instructional leadership behaviors in three schools rated by the Arkansas Department of Education in 2009 as Level Five schools of Excellence for Improvement. FULL MANUSCRIPT AVAILABLE AT:

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